Cruise ships are large commercial passenger ships used for vacations. Cruise ships have become increasingly popular recently bringing both benefits and consequences to the communities they visit. Over the years Venice has become a very popular destination for cruise ships. From 1997 to 2011, Venice’s port has seen an increase of 496.57% in the number of passengers embarking and disembarking (see Figure 2-1 in section Cruise Ship Growth below). In 2011 alone, 1,786,416 people passed through Venice by way of cruise ships, which is an increase of more than 160,000 passengers, or 10.48%.
Venice is visited by cruise ships hundreds of times a year; in 2012, cruise ships will dock in Venice 573 times, mostly during the spring to early autumn months. To accommodate such frequent visits from large ships, Venice has three separate areas where cruise ships can dock. The largest ship terminal is the Marittima, which can handle several cruise ships at a time. San Basilio is used mostly for smaller cruise ships and large yachts. Lastly, Riva dei Sette Martiri is used almost exclusively for yachts, because nearby residents object to large ships blocking the view. A map of the city of Venice with the cruise ship ports is shown in Figure 2-7.
Types of cruise ships
Some cruise ships are port of call ships, meaning that they come in the morning to let passengers off and leave in the evening when all of the passengers have returned to the ship. This means that the passengers are exploring the city of Venice all day. Other ships are home port ships, or turn-around ships. Turn-around ships imply that all the passengers get off and new passengers get on, meaning that the amount of people brought to Venice by each ship, both directly and indirectly, is doubled, resulting in a very large volume of people in the same area during the time between arrival and departure.
With so many cruise ships and passengers traveling in and out of Venice, it is important to know where people are going to help understand their impact on the city. On five separate days in late October and early November of 2011, a team of students counted 15,438 passengers from 14 different turn-around cruise ships. According to the data, 39% of those cruise ship passengers took the buses, 21% took land taxis to the mainland, and 25% took various boats because of their effective way of maneuvering through Venice. The remainder of the people either took the people mover (9%) or walked (6%). A previous team created a graphic to display these findings, and their graphic is shown below in Figure 2-8.
Cruise Ship Growth
The cruising industry has grown substantially in the past 10 years. The popularity of the cruise ship industry has added an additional 15% of tourists in recent years, and is only becoming more popular as time goes on. This increasing trend, which has increased by 500% since 1997, can be seen by the graph Figure 2-2. It shows the total number of passengers arriving by cruise ships to Venice’s port each year.
The cruise ship passengers are expected to spend approximately 57 euros at each port they visit and with an average of 2,500 passengers that is over 140,000 euros at each port visited. At each homeport visited each passegner is expected to spend 106 euros and with 2,500 people on a cruise this equals 265,000 euros. Since Venice is a homeport as well, the numerous ships cause a significant economic benefit.
Venice as a Port
In the past 10 years Venice has quadrupled the number of passengers that it has seen enter by cruise ship. As a result, it has become the 4th most popular port in Europe and 11th in the world.
Venice as a Homeport
Venice is the homeport to many different cruise ships. It was the first homeport in the Mediterranean and today is the number one homeport of the Mediterranean according to the Venice Port Authority.
Noise Pollution of Cruise Ships
The ever present cruise ships tied up at the Venetian docks are one of the largest sources of noise in the city. Noise ordinance allows for the docks to maintain a much higher level of volume than the city around it, and the cruise ships are appropriate to the zoning on the docks. However, this does not mean that the cruise ships do not break the zoning within the city itself. When tied up overnight, the hum of the engines will violate the 40dB sound ordinance of Venice proper at night. Furthermore, the huge number of tourists that cruise ships bring produces additional noise for the city.
|Ship||Company||Year Built||Passenger Capacity||Crew Capacity||Tonnage (Size)||Website|
|Azamara Journey||Azamara Club Cruises||2000||694||400||30,277||http://www.azamaraclubcruises.com|
|Azamara Quest||Azamara Club Cruises||2000||702||410||30,277||http://www.azamaraclubcruises.com|
|Celebrity Equinox||Celebrity Cruises Inc||2009||2,850||1,250||122,000||http://www.celebritycruises.com|
|Le Boreal||Compagnie Des Iles Du Ponant||2010||200||140||10,700||http://www.ponant.com|
|Arion||Constellation Cruise Holdings||2010||200||140||10,700||http://www.cic-cruises.com|
|Costa Deliziosa||Costa Crociere S.p.A.||2010||2,828||1,100||92,700||http://www.costacrociere.it|
|Costa Fortuna||Costa Crociere S.p.A.||2004||3,470||1,027||102,587||http://www.costacrociere.it|
|Costa Serena||Costa Crociere S.p.A.||2007||3,000||1,100||114,500||http://www.costacrociere.it|
|Costa Victoria||Costa Crociere S.p.A.||1996||1,950||800||75,166||http://www.costacrociere.it|
|Crystal Serenity||Crystal Cruises Inc.||2003||1,080||655||68,000||http://www.crystalcruises.com|
|Queen Victoria||Cunard Line Ltd||2007||2,000||900||90,000||http://www.cunard.com|
|Vistamar||Ellevi Shipping S.r.l.||2008||290||110||7,500||http://www.shipspotting.com/gallery/photo.php?lid=380425|
|Athena||First Quality Cruises Inc.||2007||390||260||40,012||http://www.cic-cruises.com|
|Balmoral||Fred Olson Cruise Lines Ltd||1988||1,230||471||43,537||http://www.fredolsencruises.com|
|C. Columbus||Hapy Lloyd Cruises||1997||420||170||15,000||http://www.hlcruises.com|
|Gemini||Happy Cruises S.A.||1992||800||385||19,093||http://www.happycruises.eu/en/quail_gemini_main.html|
|Nieuw Amsterdam||Holland America Line Inc.||1983||2,100||800||86,000||http://www.hollandamerica.com|
|Westerdam||Holland American Line Inc.||2004||1,916||800||82,500||http://www.hollandamerica.com|
|Grand Celebration||Iberocruceros S.L.||2008||1,896||920||47,626||http://www.ibercruceros.com|
|MSC Armonia||MSC Crociere||2001||2,087||700||58,625||http://www.msccrociere.it|
|MSC Magnifca||MSC Crociere||2010||2,518||1,027||93,330||http://www.msccrociere.it|
|MSC Musica||MSC Crociere||2006||2,550||987||89,600||http://www.msccrociere.it|
|MSC Opera||MSC Crociere||2004||1,712||740||59,000||http://www.msccrociere.it|
|Seabourn Spirit||Sebourn Cruise Line||1989||208||164||10,00||http://www.seabourn.com|
|Seabourn Odyssey||Sebourn Cruise Line||2009||450||330||32,00||http://www.seabourn.com|
|Sea Cloud Hussar||Sea Cloud Cruises||2009||136||90||3,000||http://www.seacloud.com|
|Sea Cloud II||Sea Cloud Cruises||2001||96||56||3,000||http://www.seacloud.com|
|Sea Cloud||Sea Cloud Cruises||1931||68||60||2,532||http://www.seacloud.com|
|Vision of the Seas||Royal Caribbean International||1998||2,435||765||78,491||http://www.rccl.com|
|Splendour of the Seas||Royal Caribbean International||1995||2,076||720||90,000||http://www.rccl.com|
|Star Princess||Princess Cruises Inc.||1989||2,600||1,150||109,000||http://www.princess.com|
|Ruby Princess||Princess Cruises Inc.||2008||3,800||1,200||113,000||http://www.princess.com|
|Pacific Princess||Princess Cruises Inc.||1985||1,100||780||30,277||http://www.princess.com|
|Crown Princess||Princess Cruises Inc.||2006||3,080||1,200||113,000||http://www.princess.com|
|Astor||Premicon Kreuzfahrt GmbH & Co.||1986||650||300||20,159||http://www.transocean.de/kreuzfahrten.htm|
|Regatta||Oceania Cruises Inc.||1998||684||400||30,277||http://www.oceaniacruises.com|
|Nautica||Oceania Cruises Inc.||1998||684||400||30,277||http://www.oceaniacruises.com|
|Insignia||Oceania Cruises Inc.||2003||680||373||30,277||http://www.oceaniacruises.com|
|Norwegian Gem||Norwegian Cruise Line||2007||2,466||1,154||93,502||http://www.ncl.com|
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- Venezia Terminal Passeggeri S.p.A. (2011). Venezia terminal passeggeri S.p.A. guide book. Retrieved 11/20, 2012, from http://operatori.vtp.it/risorse/allegati/brochure_armatori_2011.pdf